Role Identification

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Role Identification
Technique
ID T0850
Tactic Collection
Data Sources Network protocol analysis, Packet capture
Asset Human-Machine Interface, Control Server, Data Historian, Field Controller/RTU/PLC/IED

Description

Adversaries may perform role identification of devices involved with physical processes of interest in a target control system. Control systems devices often work in concert to control a physical process. Each device can have one or more roles that it performs within that control process. By collecting this role-based data, an adversary can construct a more targeted attack.

For example, a power generation plant may have unique devices such as one that monitors power output of a generator and another that controls the speed of a turbine. Examining devices roles allows the adversary to observe how the two devices work together to monitor and control a physical process. Understanding the role of a target device can inform the adversary's decision on what action to take, in order to cause Impact and influence or disrupt the integrity of operations. Furthermore, an adversary may be able to capture control system protocol traffic. By studying this traffic, the adversary may be able to determine which devices are outstations, and which are masters. Understanding of master devices and their role within control processes can enable the use of Rogue Master Device.


Procedure Examples

  • The Backdoor.Oldrea payload gathers server information that includes CLSID, server name, Program ID, OPC version, vendor information, running state, group count, and server bandwidth. This information helps indicate the role the server has in the control process.12
  • The Industroyer IEC 61850 component enumerates the objects discovered in the previous step and sends the domain-specific getNameList requests with each object name. This enumerates named variables in a specific domain.3

Mitigations

  • Network Allowlists - Use host-based allowlists to prevent devices from accepting connections from unauthorized systems. For example, allowlists can be used to ensure devices can only connect with master stations or known management/engineering workstations.4
  • Access Management - Access Management technologies can be used to enforce authorization policies and decisions, especially when existing field devices do not provide capabilities to support user identification and authentication 5. These technologies typically utilize an in-line network device or gateway system to prevent access to unauthenticated users, while also integrating with an authentication service to first verify user credentials.
  • Network Segmentation - Prevent unauthorized systems from accessing control servers or field devices containing industrial information, especially services used for common automation protocols (e.g., DNP3, OPC).
  • Filter Network Traffic - Perform inline allowlisting of automation protocol commands to prevent devices from sending unauthorized command or reporting messages. Allow/denylist techniques need to be designed with sufficient accuracy to prevent the unintended blocking of valid reporting messages.